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Story in The Herald-Sun (Durham, NC) February 11, 2010

This Valentine’s Day (2010) or any day of the year, consider for just one moment where that scrumptious chocolate came from, and you might be pleasantly surprised to know that it is a gift from the chocolate tree.

The story of chocolate dates back at least 3,200 years to the time of the Olmec Peoples of Middle America – it is rich with history, intrigue and flavor.

Trees provide us with oxygen, clean water, foods, spices, medicines, tea, coffee and lots of chocolate.

In North America alone we consume over $16 billion worth of chocolate products including drinks, candy and cosmetics.

In fact, North America consumes about 11 pounds per person per year, most of it between meals. The Swiss hold the world record at 22 pounds per person per year.

Chocolate comes from the tropical cacao tree’s cantaloupe-sized bean pods’. (More specifically, it’s the flavorsome seeds inside the pod.) There are three species with over 90 per cent of the pods coming from Forastero cacao. The most valuable chocolate with a fruity, spicy flavor comes from the Criollo cacao. Trinitario cacao is a cross between the other species and its seeds add extra flavor to the Forastero seeds.

The Mayans drank the bitter seed extract (and added chilies) with every meal and they traded it with the Aztecs who lived in drier cooler places where cacao trees could not grow. Ever since it was discovered cacao has been in great demand.

Evidence of chocolate in America dates back to about 1000 A.D. in Pueblo Bonito in Chaco Canyon, N.M., some 1,000 miles away from the nearest cacao plantation.

It was a prized item of trade between the Chaco Canyon residents and the Mayans in Central America.

The Spanish explorer, Christopher Columbus brought cacao seeds back to Spain in 1502. Initially, its bitter taste was not popular, but once sugar, cinnamon and vanilla were added chocolate became a craze overnight.

Dutch and Italian sailors in the 1660s also discovered cacao from Middle America and brought it to their respective countries. It wasn’t long after that Europeans established plantations – using African slave labor – throughout the tropics.

In 1828, Conrad van Houten, a Dutch chocolate-maker invented a process of removing the fat from the roasted cacao bean. The centre of the bean, called the nib, contains about 50 per cent cocao butter, which is natural saturated fat. Van Houten’s machine removed about half the fat content producing a fine powder or cocoa.

This paved the way for creating chocolate drinks and also for combining chocolate with sugar and remixing with cocoa butter to create a solid.

In 1849 the English chocolate-maker Joseph Storrs Fry was reputed to have produced the first sweet, edible solid chocolate.

In 1867, Swiss chemist Henri Nestle invented chocolate milk – adding cocoa into powdered milk.

Soon after, Rudolphe Lindt developed a process known as conching, which made chocolate more blendable and significantly enhanced the quality of the candy. Once this occurred chocolate became affordable and the industry burgeoned, globally.

Chocolate not only tastes good but it alters our body’s mood-affecting chemicals including serotonin, endorphins and phenyl ethylamine, which the body releases in response to romance.

Chocolate contains caffeine, antioxidants and also high levels of chemicals known as phenolic compounds, which in chocolate may help combat coronary disease. Phenolics are known to prevent fat-like substances in the blood stream from oxidizing and clogging the arteries. Certain chocolate phenolic compounds known as flavenoids are being tested to combat heart disease.

The Kuma Peoples of Panama drink up to 40 cups of unsweetened cocoa a week and their risk of heart disease, stroke, cancer and diabetes is very low.

Chocolate does not promote acne. Acne is related to human hormones.

Dogs are extremely allergic to theobromine a stimulant compound in cacao. Chocolate is poisonous and depending upon the quantity it may be fatal for dogs.

Cacao trees naturally grow in the understory, and seedlings need shade. Tiny flowers, growing on tree trunks and lower branches, depend upon midges and other insects, which feed on the flower’s nectar, to cross-pollinate the trees.

Inside each large pod is sweet pulp and between 25 and 50 seeds. It takes about five months for the pods to ripen.

In an attempt to increase yield some plantations remove the native overstory thereby casting 100 percent sunshine onto the cacao seedlings. Without the natural plants and animals in the tropical rainforest, the natural pest protection system as well as fertilization is lost. The cacao trees become very susceptible to disease, must be sprayed with toxic pesticides and the soil treated with petro-chemical fertilizers.

Moreover, West Africa produces about 40 per cent of the world’s cocoa and at least $118 million per year of their gross $1,4 billion in sales goes towards fueling conflicts and buying fire-arms. Worse still, according to the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture an estimated 284,000 children are enslaved in hazardous conditions along the Ivory Coast and other African countries, where they work on cacao plantations, applying pesticides and using machetes.

Support Fair Trade Certified cocoa, chocolate bars and chocolate chips sold in over 2,000 retail locations across North America including Safeway, Whole Foods and local organic grocers like in San Diego Jimbo’s Naturally.

*Hershey’s ( and M&M/Mars ( control two-thirds of the $16 billion North American chocolate market and they must scrutinize the cacao plantations – like Starbucks has done in coffee plantations – and protect children’s rights.

*Since this article ran Hershey’s has pledged $10 million to improve West African cocoa farming and fight child labor

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Earth Dr Reese Halter is an award-winning broadcaster and distinguished biologist. His latest books are The Insatiable Bark Beetle and The Incomparable Honeybee

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Text © by Dr Reese Halter 2012. All rights reserved.


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